The city has very ancient origins that are frequently blurred with legend. Originally, there is the mermaid Parthenope and then a story of about three millennia enriched by the influence of various cultures. From the Greek-Roman Naples, still visible in the decumani of the city, to the Angevin, Aragonese, and then Bourbon Naples until the unification of Italy and contemporary Naples.
The Cumanian Greeks founded the city of Parthenope with the name of Neapolis (“new city”).
The east emperor allows the city to have its government by establishing a duke.
The Normans imposed their power on Naples, however recognizing the city wide autonomy. The construction of the oldest castle in Naples, Castel dell’Ovo, dates back to this period.
The German sovereign Henry VI takes possession of the south of Italy. Three years later, Frederick II ascended to the throne and commissioned significant restoration and embellishment works. The city becomes a cultural hub.
The brother of the king of France, Charles of Anjou takes the crown in southern Italy. Churches arise, and trade develops. Naples becomes the first metropolis of Italy. The kings of Anjou promote writers, intellectuals, and artists, including Boccaccio, Petrarca, and Giotto.
The Aragonese besiege and conquer Naples. We are at the beginning of the Renaissance period, whose testimonies remain in the city’s artistic heritage.
Two centuries of colonial domination begin. It was a time of wars and struggles for occupation. From an artistic point of view, however, the city continues to flourish. The Habsburgs built via Toledo, and the Royal Palace and the Certosa di San Martino also date back to this period.
After the Bourbon eighteenth century and a French phase in which Giuseppe Bonaparte and Gioacchino Murat reigned, the absolute monarchy of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was established, which governs southern Italy and Sicily. The construction of Piazza Plebiscito dates back to this period, an example of masterful neoclassical architecture.
Garibaldi enters Naples and announces the annexation to the new Italian state, under the Savoy crown. These are times of change but important monuments such as the Galleria Umberto continue to raise, a tribute to the king for his genius during the epidemics of these years.